Egg donation is an effective way to overcome infertility when a donated egg is healthier than eggs from your ovary. Once they have made the decision to move to egg donation, couples want to know more about their potential donors. Donor screening refers to the way IVF centers test potential donors to be sure that their eggs will offer a safe alternative for family building.
If you’re a candidate for in vitro fertilization (IVF), you’ve probably learned a lot of new information before making the decision, and that likely includes a whole new vocabulary.
Egg Donor & Intended parents genetic testing
The donor should undergo a thorough medical and family history along with a genetic screening, to rule out any hereditary diseases (such as having a family history of cancer, heart disease, mental illness, etc.) or genetic abnormalities (such as being a genetic carrier for cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, etc.) that could affect the offspring.
According to recommendations of international associations, donors must be tested for:
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Fragile X
One of the reasons for treatment with egg donation may be family genetic disorders IPs know about and would like to exclude the possibility of transmission to child.
There are 2 ways how IP can insure future child born with donor eggs will not be the carrier of disease:
- Comparing of genetic test. If IP and the donor has results of testing for particular number of genes, genetic specialist can compare them and find out the possibility of genetic disorders transmission.
- Conduct matching test. In this case blood of IP and the donor must be collected and sent to the laboratory. There genetic compatibility finding will be done.
Embryo genetic testing. PGD and PGS
PGD (Preimplantation genetic diagnostics). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a reproductive technology used along with an IVF cycle to increase the potential for a successful pregnancy and delivery. PGD is a genetic test on cells removed from embryos, to help select the best embryo(s) to achieve pregnancy or to avoid a genetic disease for which a couple is at risk.
PGD may be considered in all IVF cycles; however, those who might benefit most from this test are couples at increased risk for chromosome abnormalities or specific genetic disorders. This includes women who have had several miscarriages, or who have had a prior pregnancy with a chromosome abnormality. Women over 38 years of age and men with some types of sperm abnormalities may produce embryos with higher rates of chromosome abnormalities. This test is also known as PGT-A (aneuploidy). In addition, if a person carries a structural rearrangement of the chromosomes, PGD can identify which embryos have a normal amount of chromosomal material. This technology is also known as PGT-SR (structural rearrangement). When there is a 25% or 50% chance to have a child affected with a specific genetic disease, PGD can be designed to identify which embryos are affected, unaffected, or a carrier (if applicable) for that disease. Then, only embryos without the disease are transferred to the uterus to attempt pregnancy. This is also known as PGT-M (monogenic disorders).
PGS (Preimplantation genetic screening). PGS testing screens embryos for any chromosomal abnormalities before transferring the embryo into uterus.
After fertilization, an embryo biopsy is taken at typically day five or six of the embryo’s development, meaning that a few cells from the embryo are extracted and analyzed. Each cell should contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, or 46 chromosomes total. PGS testing assesses all 23 pairs of chromosomes, including the two sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine the embryo’s sex. PGS testing can test to see if there are any extra or missing copies of chromosomes in each embryo.
A small sample of each embryo is sent to a genetic testing lab, but embryos will safely be stored at IVF clinic.
Overall, PGS helps to determine whether or not embryos appear to have the correct number of chromosomes. This is something many patients could benefit from, as it can increase pregnancy rates per transfer and reduce the risk of miscarriage, but it’s particularly recommended for the following:
- If you’re over the age of 35 years old: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have indicated that women over the age of 35 have a higher propensity for disorders that impair fertility and miscarriages. In addition, as women age, the chance for chromosomal abnormalities in embryos increases. PGS testing can be incredibly helpful for these patients by testing for chromosomal abnormalities in embryos prior to transfer.
- If you’ve experienced more than two miscarriages: PGS testing is known to reduce miscarriage rates by testing for chromosomal abnormalities in embryos prior to transfer. This is because around half of all miscarriages are due to chromosomal abnormalities.
- If you’ve had multiple rounds of IVF that were not successful: PGS testing is known to increase the likelihood of a successful embryo transfer by identifying which embryos appear chromosomally normal. In turn, this may help eliminate the need for as many cycles of IVF.
First Egg Bank egg donors genetic testing
To ensure top-quality and complete safety of donor material provided by First Egg Bank, our experienced and professional team of fertility specialists and nurses, egg donor coordinators, geneticists, and psychologists extensively evaluate personal and family medical history and other basic information of each egg donor to make sure it complies with our highest selection criteria.
General Egg Donor Testing and Physical Examination are performed to evaluate an egg donation program applicant’s personal and family medical history, to exclude the possibility of the potential risks to the candidate’s health and the children who will be born in the result of her egg donation.
Egg donor Genetic testing:
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Fragile X
We will ensure any further genetic screening of the donors whose biological material has been supplied by First Egg Bank in case of necessity and on request of our clients and partner clinics.
First Egg Bank cooperates with the following genetic laboratories: